Unclos 1994 Implementation Agreement

At the beginning of the 20th century, some nations expressed their desire to extend national requirements: the integration of mineral resources, the protection of fish stocks and the provision of pollution control. (The League of Nations convened a conference in The Hague in 1930, but no agreement was reached. [6] By applying the principle of a nation`s international law to the protection of its natural resources, President Harry S. Truman extended control of the United States in 1945 to all natural resources on his continental shelf. Other nations quickly followed suit. Between 1946 and 1950, Chile, Peru and Ecuador extended their rights to a distance of 200 nautical miles (370 km) to cover their Humboldt-Strom fisheries. Other nations extended their coastal seas to 22 km. [7] The convention was opened for signature on 10 December 1982 and came into force on 16 November 1994 with the removal of the 60th instrument of ratification. [1] The convention has been ratified by 168 parties, comprising 167 states (164 UN member states plus the UN Observer State, Palestine, the Cook Islands, Niue and the European Union). [2] On the basis of these revisions, the draft resolution and draft agreement on the application of Part XI of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea were revised in their entirety and a revised text was published on 8 April 1994, the last day of the session. The consultations also indicated that Member States had the resumption of the 48th session of the United Nations General Assembly from 27 to 29 July 1994, with a view to the adoption of the resolution. They also called for the agreement to be immediately signed after the adoption of the resolution.

In 2017, the Un General Assembly (UNGA) voted to convene an Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) to study the creation of a legally binding international instrument (ILBI) for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity outside the national jurisdiction (BBNJ). The Intergovernmental Conference will meet for a series of four sessions between 2018 and 2020 to move towards an agreement. [25] The second round of informal consultations with the Secretary-General in 1994 took place from 4 to 8 April. The session was accompanied by a further update of the “boat” document, entitled “Project resolution and agreement on the application of Part XI of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea” of 14 February 1994. In the informal consultations on 28 and 29 January 1993, participants generally felt that the phase in which a text should be developed on the basis of a more operational approach in a form that could form the basis of an agreement was adopted. In response to some of the difficulties associated with the provisions of the exploitation of the seabed in Part XI of the agreement, mentioned in particular by the industrialized countries, the Secretary-General convened in July 1990 a series of informal consultations which culminated on 28 July 1994 in the adoption of the Agreement on the Application of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982. The agreement entered into force on July 28, 1996. At the end of the session, a revised text (SG/LOS/CRP.1/Rev.1) of 3 June 1994 was presented to delegations.