This observation will be much more complex, however, as 13 of the 16 VA countries – including Côte d`Ivoire and Ghana, but also Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal and Togo – signed the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement on 21 March 2018 at the extraordinary summit of African Union heads of state on 21 March. 2018. 2018 in Kigali , where only Nigeria, Guinea-Bissau and Sierra Leone have not signed. But this agreement obliges the thirteen VA states to eliminate their customs duties on 90% of their imports from African countries. Not surprisingly, the European Commission, which had already partially funded the CFTA process, welcomed the signing of the AfCFTA and reaffirmed its commitment to continue this support in a joint statement by Federica Mogherini, Vice-President of the European Commission for Foreign Affairs, EU Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmström and the European Commissioner for Development and International Cooperation. Neven Mimica . Indeed, the AfCFTA will significantly increase EU exports to Africa, where EU multinationals are already in a position of strength and would focus their activities on the most competitive countries, to the detriment of others. Six years after the negotiations, the Economic Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the West African region is still pending until Nigeria has signed. Under the Cotonou Agreement, the proposed EPA should be in line with WTO rules on preferential trade agreements, while strengthening the long-standing relationship between the two sides. This article analyses the crucial challenges related to the ratification of the agreement and the potential landmines that may occur in the region during the harmonization of the proposed agreement.
It shows that while the EPA offers a progressive agenda for West Africa`s economic development, effective implementation and proactive regional integration are key to the agreement`s exploitation potential.  www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2018/04/10/buhari-l-declined-signing-regional-economic-pact-to-protect-local-industries-youths-fg-au-to-resume-afcfta  www.africa-eu-partnership.org/en/newsroom/all-news/africa-launches-its-continental-free-trade-area And why is the EU so blind and opposed if it claims to be addressing the causes of undesirable African migration at its borders? whether the UNION wishes to negotiate, under conditions generally acceptable to the VA and the ACP countries, the cooperation agreement that will succeed Cotonou from 2021, while enabling them to achieve by 2030 the objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (Sustainable Development Goals) signed in New York in September 2015 and the Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015, it must begin with the end of the IEPA of Côte d`Ivoire and Ghana. . . .